Choosing your toothbrush and toothpaste for better oral hygiene

The choice of the toothbrush is essential. Not only do you have to decide between a manual and electric toothbrush, but also the shape of the head, the suppleness of the hair and the shape of the sleeve.

Several criteria are taken into account, among which the material used for the bristles of the brush. Know that synthetic hair is the best choice and the most hygienic. Indeed, the natural hairs are sometimes too rigid thus risking to hurt the gum. Regarding the flexibility of the hairs, there are several categories but more often we meet the brushes with extra soft bristles, flexible and hard.

You will choose according to your dentition. For example, soft-bristled toothbrushes are recommended for people with normal dentition who have no problem with their mouth. Those with very soft bristles are prescribed for people with fragile gums while hard bristles are more for people with strong gums.

In addition, it is also advisable to choose small-toothed toothbrushes that more easily reach different parts of the teeth. In addition, there are different forms of toothbrush head: simple, articulated or more complex with different positions and hair lengths. Also, before making your choice, you must have an idea of ​​your dentition in general.

In any case, if you have difficulty choosing your toothbrush, do not hesitate to get closer to your dentist who will suggest the brush adapted to your teeth.

The manual toothbrush must be changed every 3 months.

What about electric toothbrushes?

Today the electric toothbrush is making its appearance. However, you must also be vigilant in your choice. The best choice is the round-headed brush because it will make circular movements on the tooth. Generally the device is changed every two years.

Choosing the right toothpaste

If almost all toothpastes contain fluoride, their preservation may cause them to lose this fluoride content. Exposure of the toothpaste to the sun or its poor preservation alters its quality: whether in the market or in the pharmacy, there are pastes that contain fluoride and that are of quality. However, the most important thing is their conservation.

Children’s orthodontics

Having a beautiful smile, functional and healthy, is something that can be achieved thanks to dentistry.

Orthodontics is the specialty of Dentistry that is responsible for the correction of dental and / or skeletal malocclusions. That is, the specialty that corrects bones and teeth that are poorly placed or located, making the teeth stay more aligned, practical and aesthetic.

Its results are more effective during the childhood stage (timely care), since during development it is easier to correct bone defects and dental malposition’s to show beautiful adult teeth in the adult stage.


There are very important signs that always require early treatment:

  • Cross bite, when the upper part and the lower part of the mouth do not agree with each other. This creates asymmetries, which if not addressed in time, when the patient is a teenager are very difficult to treat.
  • If your child breathes through your mouth, oral habits such as sucking your finger or lip Jaw very out.
  • It is also very important to ask about the dental history of the parents, since a significant percentage is of hereditary origin.


It would be advisable that the first revision by an orthodontist be made around 7-8 years, since it is the moment in which the group of definitive upper and lower incisors has erupted, and bone growth is important, which allows us to diagnose if there is a problem that can be corrected early.

If the dental replacement and occlusion are correct, we will make annual revisions to control the correct dental eruption.

It is also advisable to take the child to the pediatric dentist (specialist in Children’s Dentistry) from 3 years, as a rule once a year. And he will be the one to notify the parents if a visit to the orthodontist is necessary before the usual, due to the presence of some problem of skeletal malocclusion, since there are cases in which it is important to start correcting the bone problem before they begin to appear the first definitive teeth.


The treatment lasts between six months and a year and a half, although it depends on each case. You have to make a first visit to pediatric dentistry and orthodontics. This first visit has to be done when temporary identification is considered, after three and four years the patient is seen and treatment is individualized.


They serve to evaluate the quality of the bones, of the roots, if there is presence of caries or of other pathologies that must be corrected before beginning the orthodontics and to evaluate the growth of the jaws. The type of x-rays and the amount depends on the diagnosis identified at the first assessment appointment.


Especially to prevent a later and very complex orthodontic treatment. There are things that if treated in time make growth symmetrical and natural. These early treatments are focused on bone treatment: expanding the palate, favoring the growth of a jaw or maxilla. When the bones are arranged it is very easy to place the teeth well in their places.


The proper hygiene of the teeth during orthodontics is essential for success in the outcome of the treatment. Otherwise the patient will begin to notice redness of the gums, frequent bleeding when brushing, dull white and brown spots, bad breath, decay, etc.

The basic thing for good hygiene with braces is the toothbrush, interdental brush, dental floss and fluoride mouthwash.

Citrus foods, enemies of oral health

Citric acid is an element present in various fruits, such as oranges and lemons, and is often used for carbonated flavor drinks. Although it is not a vitamin or a mineral, it is known to have many health benefits, as it neutralizes excess acid in the blood and urine, helping to treat some kidney problems and prevent urinary tract infections. However, despite these benefits, their consumption should be moderate, since citrus foods are usually harmful to oral health. Here we explain a little more about this acid and its influence on the smile.

How does citric acid damage teeth?

The effects that citric acid has on our mouths are complex, because they have the ability to dissolve the calcium salts that make up the surface of the teeth. When they come in contact with the enamel of the teeth a chemical effect occurs that directly affects the calcium found in these, which leaves the teeth much more vulnerable to attacks by the bacteria found in the mouth.

Does lemon citric acid not serve to whiten teeth?

For many years it was believed that the skin of the lemon served as a natural bleach for the teeth. Although that may be an effect of this fruit in the mouth, that is because the lemon is a debilitating of the teeth, because their acids trigger chemical reactions that leave the most sensitive and unprotected teeth. So its use to clear the smile is not recommended.

What care should I have when consuming citrus foods?

Despite the curses that these foods have for oral health, that does not mean that they should not be consumed, because they are very beneficial for other parts of the body. However, we must take into account some points to prevent them from becoming enemies of the smile. It is advisable to rinse with water at the end of eating a citrus food to remove some of the acid from the mouth. In addition, water intake in the following hours will help mitigate the harmful effects of these foods for oral health.

Coffee, a beverage that helps prevent cavities

Coffee, like many of the foods that we consume habitually has suffered throughout the recent history pendulum movements in the perception of its properties; oscillating, according to the times, between harmful and beneficial according to the changing results of scientific publications.

Coffee is a beverage full of flavor, good to keep us alert and makes the day more enjoyable. The coffee, was born in the year 1140 in Abyssinia, when some shepherds realized that their goats were getting very restless and were given the task of investigating the reason for this euphoria.

They discovered that they were eating red fruits that were given in some bushes. The shepherds took the fruits, toasted them and prepared a hot drink to protect themselves from the desert night chill. Since that day coffee has become one of the most used and most precious drinks for the most select palates.

Lately many beneficial properties have been discovered such as reducing headache, avoiding blood clots, reducing the risk of suffering from Parkinson’s disease, improving asthma and allergies, preventing stone formation, decreasing the risk of developing cancer, reducing depression, reducing the risk of developing diabetes and one of the most important for oral health the prevention of caries. Always a moderate consumption between three and four cups a day.

Caries is one of the chronic diseases with more prevalence among all sectors of the population although in the young population including children it is observed more. The caries is an endogenous infection that causes destruction of the hard tissues of the tooth by the bacterial activity that are able to produce through the glycosyltransferase, insoluble adhesive polysaccharides the formation of a plaque that mediates the accumulation of the streptococci allowing the adhesion of these last on the surface of the tooth. All this process can be inhibited through the consumption of specific products such as, the apple that inhibits the formation of plaque, the wine that inhibits the formation of the biofilm of streptococcus mutants, it tea (green tea) that has antimicrobial activity on the mutants streptococci.

In a recent study where caries indices were observed in 1000 patients of both sexes who consumed only coffee as a beverage, it was found that the rate of caries in patients who drank coffee without additives (sugar or milk) was 2.9 in the subjects who consumed coffee with sugars and milk, the caries index was 5.5 and the subjects who consumed were drinking milk but without adding sugars, the caries index was 3.4. The conclusions of this study were that coffee helps in the prevention of caries but only if it is consumed without additives.

This property of coffee is allowed by the presence of polyphenols in it. The presence of the latter in coffee ranges from 5.5% to 12%. Polyphenols have many properties such as, for example, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic activity and the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Coffee has no effect on the inhibition of mutant’s streptococcus growth but it significantly reduces them on the surface of the tooth.

In a very recent study indicate that the components of coffee (melanoidin) have an anti-biofilm and anti-adhesion activity that does not allow streptococcus mutants to adhere to the hydroxyapatite of the tooth. The creation of the biofilm was completely inhibited in the presence of the fractions with a high molecular weight and only 20% in the presence of the melanoidin components.

With all this we can say that consuming coffee without additives of any kind and in a moderate way can help in the prevention of dental caries but we must always bear in mind that it is a drink that can color the teeth if consumed in an exaggerated way.

Coffee, ally or enemy of dental health

That coffee stains teeth is one of the most widespread beliefs around this exciting and aromatic beverage. And it is true that we ink our teeth, because as tea and other drinks contain dyes that stain tooth enamel, especially in large doses.

To prevent the coffee from darkening our teeth we can take it with milk, since less concentrated stains less or we can also drink a glass of water after ingesting it, which is similar to a buckle arm. With certain precautions and with a correct oral hygiene, our aesthetics will not be affected. However, in this article we will talk about the many benefits of coffee, and not only for our general health, but especially for our oral health.

The main benefit of coffee, always taken in moderation, is that it is an activator for the caffeine it contains. It is known to give energy, it keeps you alert, it is diuretic, laxative and even many elite athletes take it to keep the adrenaline high in the competition (beware, it is a substance considered dopant). But its other benefits are much less known, coffee is vasodilator and thus prevents diseases such as diabetes or some types of cancer, it also favors blood pressure and thereby prevents coronary heart disease and is even shown to reduce the possibility of contracting neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s or Parkinson’s.

Coffee and dental caries

So far we have seen some of the advantages of coffee consumption in our body for its anti-oxidant components, but what is less known is that coffee also has anti-bacterial components, which among other things, reduces the risk of develop tooth decay. In our article of dental caries we saw that the main cause of the appearance of caries is the bacterium Streptococcus mutants.

Recent studies have confirmed that trigonelina (responsible for the bitter taste of coffee), acts as a powerful anti-adhesive against this bacterium that causes dental caries. This substance, together with chromogenic acid and nicotinic are the anti-bacterial components that reduce the chances of developing caries.

We know that over time and taken in large doses the coffee stains teeth, but taken moderately (up to three cups a day) and carrying out a proper brushing (two or three times daily), not only do we get our teeth are not stained, but also thanks to its anti-oxidant, anti-carcinogenic and anti-bacterial action, achieve excellent benefits for our oral health and our general health.

Cold hypersensitivity syndrome 

Approximately 1:1,000,000 of the general population is affected.  The responsible gene (CAS1) has been mapped to 1q44 and encodes for cryopyrin, a protein that is expressed on peripheral leukocytes and chondrocytes and appears to be involved in apoptosis and caspase-1 activation.

The diagnosis is based on the clinical findings and the family history and is confirmed by sequencing analysis of the CAS1 gene (although CAS1 mutations also occur in other syndromes, e.g., Mackle-Wells Syndrome). Usually the onset of symptoms occurs hours after birth or as soon as the baby is exposed to a cold environment.

Delayed presentation is possible, but the maximal age at onset is believed to be less than 6 months. Urticarial eruptions are triggered by exposure to cold, damp air, and/or wind (air conditioning), generally occur 1 to 2 hours after exposure, and initially present as macules and papules on exposed skin areas, which then spread to covered sites.

The distinctive lesions have a purple cyanotic color and are surrounded by a white halo, causing a burning pain rather than itch. Intense cold exposure not only is associated with eruptions lasting for up to 48 hours, but potentially also with a systemic reaction of fever, sweating, arthralgia, myalgia, headache, conjunctivitis, and leukocytosis, which usually follow 4 to 6 hours after exposure.

Systemic amyloidosis has been suspected in some cases, but the diagnosis in these cases was questioned and reevaluation found the diagnosis of Mackle-Wells syndrome more likely. Nevertheless, a small percentage of patients with cold hypersensitivity syndrome suffers from renal amyloidosis. Although the disorder is a lifelong issue, it does not affect life expectancy. Treatment is primarily preventive. Medications used to treat the disease are no steroidal antiinflammatory drugs, steroids, and gold. Some patients have also been treated with interleukin-1 antagonists and stanozolol.

Avoid cold exposure. Arterial hypotension and cardiovascular collapse may occur. Increasing the temperature in the operating room and warming the operating room table before patients are brought into the room are recommended. The use of warming mattresses or better forced-air convective warming devices and warmed infusions should be considered.

Hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass and cold cardioplegia should be avoided although they have been used successfully in one patient with prebypass and on-bypass antiinflammatory treatment. Because some patients are on gold therapy, a complete blood count (to rule out thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, agranulocytosis, or aplastic anemia) should be obtained, and renal function (because of possible renal amyloidosis; creatinine, blood urea nitrogen) and hepatic function (transaminases, bilirubin, coagulation profile, serum albumin) should be assessed.

Patients may be on steroid therapy and, depending on the procedure, perioperative steroid stress coverage may be required.

Culture of dental prevention

It is well known that, people go to the doctor only when there is pain, they have some discomfort or they felt something strange. We do not have the culture to go to a routine review, for that reason it is indispensable to develop this culture of prevention.

The oral hygiene should be included in the culture of prevention, because the mouth is central to our health and a body part that can detect many diseases.

The dentist not only checks the teeth, also gums, lips, inner part of the cheeks, braces, etc., so it may be the right one to detect some diseases such as anemia, leukemia and cancer in the mouth, among others.

All this can be achieved when a good medical-dental history is made, which will be a reference in the culture of prevention and care.

A patient must be aware that such prevention begins with care from pregnancy. Therefore, it is important to indicate to a mother the hygiene measures, and guide her for an intake of foods rich in nutrients that allow good mental, physical and dental health.

The first measures of dental hygiene in a newborn can start with oral cleaning. With gauze rolled on the mother’s index finger and wet with boiled water, the inside of the mouth is cleaned after each feed.

The mother should be recommended to breastfeed, as part of a culture of prevention, both for the defenses that will transmit to the baby, and for the stimulus that this causes in the development of their jaws when doing so.

When the first tooth appears in the baby, the professional will tell the mother to use a soft brush, so that the child will associate food with cleaning, in order to develop the habit of oral hygiene.

Always the way of brushing should be supervised by the parents since this way the child acquires the skill for a better handling of the brush.

The child can be given fluoride application around a year or year and a half of life; thus, the prevention culture will be repeated every year, in the same way that the eruption and development of the dental pieces will be monitored.

That is why parents should take their children to the dentist, which is essential in the culture of prevention, to take their children and that if necessary they are made a complete and appropriate treatment according to their age and development.

This is how with minimally invasive dentistry, more pleasant care can be offered.

Dangers of not whiten teeth with professionals

Many people seek to have a perfect smile and therefore undergo the treatments they think necessary to achieve it. One of the most used is that of teeth whitening.

Whitening is increasingly offered by more non-specialized centers such as aesthetic or hair removal clinics with non-dental personnel, with the dangers that this entails for patients.

These treatments are not safe and that carried out by non-specialists can have consequences for patients such as “burns, mucosal alterations or tooth sensitivity.

In this way, the teeth are not rid of the fever of the aesthetic clinics that have been in our society for years. These centers offer lower prices and promise practically unattainable results. They are the perfect bait for those who want it good, beautiful and cheap.

All whitening treatment must be prescribed by a dental health professional.

The most commonly used method for teeth whitening treatments is hydrogen peroxide and carbide peroxide. But these products have their dangers and should only be used by dental professionals.

Caution with miracle products

The miracle products, so well-known for example for thinning attempts, also exist in this case of tooth whitening. Certain pastes and products to “have white teeth” can be dangerous. These products are high abrasive content pastes whose function is to eliminate stains.

In short, as is the cause whitening treatments, aesthetic surgical interventions, etc. everything must have a way of being done that does not endanger the patient’s health.

The search for savings of a few dollars in beauty and aesthetic treatments can have short or long-term repercussions, in some cases irreversible that make it not worth the risk.

Dental cracks

The dental cracks is considered as a structural loss of the tooth that is not due to any bacteria, but is due to a very frequent trauma on the teeth and caused by an excess of the force of the bite on them. There is, therefore, a loss of hard dental tissues.

Dental cracks has a series of consequences:

  • The thickness of the enamel is lost in the area of ​​the neck of the tooth. The fragile and brittle enamel prisms break due to the deformation produced by the force of the bite.
  • The enamel is subjected to constant flexion by occlusal movements. In the neck of the tooth the flexural deformation takes place, in normal periodontal conditions, since the tooth and the alveolar bone have a similar modulus of elasticity. Like the crown, with its rigid enamel layer, it cannot be deformed. The deformation can only take place in the neck of the tooth. This causes the hard substance to break, facilitating greater permeability and making the chemical restructuring of the tooth easier.
  • The exposed dentine is predisposed to abrasion by brushing and the action of cariogenic agents.

Treatment of dental cracks.

The early dental treatment of the cracks is performed by occlusal adjustment, to reduce flexion and compression. The treatment of dental cracks depends on their characteristics. In general, a restoration with resin is sufficient in most cases, however in cases of sensitivity, restoration can be recommended with another type of protective material, such as the glass monomer, or the combination of these two materials. These restorations tend to be quick, as there is no infected material as in the case of tooth decay, it is not necessary to wear the affected surface. In addition, discharge splints must be used to neutralize the mechanical stress factors that contribute to progress of these injuries.

Definition of teeth

The teeth are one of the most important parts of our body. They are found inside our mouths and we use them especially to chew, crush, the food we eat. This crushing will obviously facilitate its transfer through the digestive tract. They also turn out to be indispensable when it comes to oral expression. We have only to observe a person without teeth speaking to realize how difficult it will be to understand their diction without teeth.

For these important functions that deploy is that we must take care of them in a preventive way to avoid being affected by some of the typical conditions, such as tooth decay, plaque, gingivitis or inflammation of the gums, among others.

The teeth of human beings are characterized by their white color and by their hardness, that is, they are rather solid bodies that are made up of calcium and phosphorus. They are implanted in the jaw bones of the jaw, in the mouth.

Meanwhile, there are four types of teeth that people have and each of these has a particular function: the canines tear, the incisors cut the food, and the molars are responsible for grinding and the premolars to crush food.

Its appearance occurs at an early age, a few months of life of any person, while, those teeth, popularly known as baby teeth, are temporary, at the age of five or six years fall spontaneously and the definitive denture emerges.

The moment of replacing the milk teething is usually a very special moment for the person given that at a certain point marks its maturity.

Brush them regularly after meals and make regular visits to the dentist, who is the professional who takes care of the health of the teeth.